“Terrorism, the Skorzeny Syndrome, is flourishing in the modern world, a reminder that Hitler and Nazism are still taking their toll more than three decades after the Third Reich collapsed.”—Glenn B. Infield115
The above quotation is from Infield’s biography of Otto Skorzeny, published in 1981, and the facts are as true today as they were then. Infield writes of the relationship that existed between Skorzeny and Yassir Arafat, for instance, and reminds us how Skorzeny advised the PLO and Al-Fatah from his base in Cairo. Infield knew and interviewed Skorzeny, and his biography of “Hitler’s Commando” is relevant to any contemporary study of the origins of modern terrorism.
What the world has been experiencing since at least 2001 and certainly for years earlier than the attack on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon has been what analysts refer to as “asymmetrical warfare” conducted by “non-state actors.” This is a technique that was developed to perfection by Skorzeny and the other leaders of what we have called ODESSA. The fact that the Western intelligence agencies turned a blind eye to Skorzeny’s activities has contributed to our inability to confront and defeat what we have called Islamist terrorism.
Arms dealing, covert international banking systems, targeted assassinations, terror bombings, the “strategy of tension” as it was described and defined by fascist terrorist Stefano della Chiaie, already existed as part of an underground terror network long before al-Qaeda was born.
After World War II, the American people thought that Nazi Germany had been defeated and the “war” was over; this book demonstrates that it never was. Instead, we were told that Communism was the new threat and we had to pull out all the stops to prevent a Communist takeover of the country. And so our military and our intelligence agencies collaborated with surviving Nazis to go after Communists. We refused to pursue worldwide right wing terror groups and assassins. After all, they were killing Communists and leftists; they were doing us a service. Like Hoover and the Mafia, the CIA refused to believe a Nazi Underground existed even as they collaborated with it (via the Gehlen Organization and the like).
The whole thrust of this book has been that American leaders in business, finance, media, and politics collaborated with Nazis before, during, and after the war. The West’s share in the “blame” for Al-Qaeda, et al, goes back a long way—before Eisenhower—to a cabal of extremist US Army generals and emigre Eastern Europeans who didn’t have much of a problem with Nazism since they feared Communism more. The Church, the Tibetans, the Japanese, the Germans, the Croatians—and the Americans—all felt that Communism was the greater danger, long before WW II. We enlisted war criminals to fight on our side. We appropriated the idea of global jihad from the Nazis and their WW I predecessors. We amped up their plan to weaponize religion and convinced Muslims, who hated each other, to band together to fight Communism. And when Afghanistan was liberated and the Soviet Union was defeated?
September 11, 2001.
Our cynical exploitation of religion has delivered a hideous stream of blowback that threatens the world still.
With the Nazi diaspora, the leaders of the Third Reich who had survived—who were either living underground, or were “denazified” and living freely above ground—constituted a government-in-exile. They remained in contact, reinforced each other’s beliefs, provided logistical support where possible, and kept the faith alive. They became involved in political and military intrigues around the globe, always with the goal of causing an imbalance in global power structures. Motivated by anti-Semitism, they collaborated with Arab leaders and guerrilla organizations in attacks against Israel, even going so far as to develop weapons systems in Egypt. They wrote propaganda against Israel and against Jews in general, repeating the same libels as before. They formed “neo-Nazi” groups in Europe, Latin America, North America, and elsewhere, cultivating a fawning new generation of followers on every continent. They support Holocaust deniers and right-wing extremists everywhere, even when they do not agree on all points. They found official positions within extremist governments in the Middle East and Latin America.
They also constitute an army-in-exile. They trained troops, instructed security forces in interrogation and torture, ran guns. They conspired to assassinate objectionable leaders in various countries, as well as those who betrayed their own network. They developed weapons of mass destruction long before the identical claim was laid at the door of Saddam Hussein.
They are “non-state actors” like Al-Qaeda, with the difference that they recently had a state. They conduct “asymmetric warfare” because they can no longer field battalions made of tanks and planes and submarines—and no longer really need to do so. Using terror as a weapon has proven to be far more effective. They move money silently and unseen through the world’s financial institutions. People like Schacht and Genoud wrote the book.
And they are loosely organized. Individual units possess a certain degree of deniability, something that newer terror groups have copied.
Al-Qaeda, Hamas, Hizbollah, Fatah, Jemaah Islamiyyah, Lashkar- e-Taiba, etc. are all children of ODESSA. The pact between Nazi anti-Semitism and Arab anti-Semitism was made with Hajj Amin al-Husseini all those years ago—and has been renewed every decade since with refinements as necessary to reflect emerging political realities in the aftermath of the fall of the Soviet Union. Skorzeny, al-Husseini, Genoud: one big happy family.
Emboldened by the defeat of the Red Army in Afghanistan, aided and abetted by CIA, the militant forces of that remote yet deadly landscape turned their attention on the West. Repudiating Western decadence and liberalism, the Taliban enforced strict and even idiosyncratic interpretations of syariah law. Proponents of the Third Way, the Taliban were equally disgusted with Soviet atheism and Communism, and with American materialism and liberalism. Yet, they won the war against the Soviet invasion using asymmetric warfare. They were not able to field armored divisions, but had to wage a long and exhausting guerrilla war against helicopter gunships, tanks, and rockets.
Asymmetric warfare is usually defined as the conflict between two, dramatically unequal, forces. The war of the United States in Vietnam is given as one example, where the vastly superior (in terms of economy, numbers, and military strength) US forces fought the guerrilla forces represented by the Viet Cong, and the regular North Vietnamese forces represented by the Viet Minh. Often the Israeli- Palestinian conflict is given as another example, with the army and air force of the Israeli military opposed to the various guerrilla factions represented by the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO), plus those of Hamas and Hizbollah.
In most, if not all cases, of asymmetric warfare of the last hundred years or so, it has often been that of a powerful western country embroiled in a conflict with numerically and economically weaker non-state actors, which the current problem with Al-Qaeda and ISIL seems to represent. In these cases, the non-state actors are fighting for their own territory, language, ethnic identity, etc., often against a colonial or former colonial power, such as England, France, the Netherlands, Spain, etc.
There is one type of asymmetric warfare that is usually not recognized or included in studies of this phenomenon, however: it is when a powerful state loses its power yet continues to fight the forces that defeated it, using the same means as non-state actors— such as terrorism and assassination. There is to my knowledge only one such example in the modern world, and that is Nazi Germany.
As pointed out in studies of terrorism and asymmetric warfare, nationalist and ethno-nationalist groups are those most likely to engage in this type of protracted and violent conflict. That is not to say that leftist, “internationalist” groups do not, and have not, also been involved in asymmetric warfare; of course they have. The number of violent incidents involving leftist groups is actually larger than those perpetrated by nationalist groups; however the number of fatalities is substantially greater in those incidents perpetrated by the nationalists and ethno-nationalist, anti-colonial groups.
Nationalism is a hallmark of the type of terrorism we have come to experience in the post-World War Two period. It was actually given a form and an agenda by the Nazis who created the Werewolf concept: a stay-behind guerrilla force that would use asymmetric tactics to wage war against the Allies. This was an example of a state that refused to cease hostilities even after defeat.
Another type of asymmetric actor is the religious ideologue. As has been pointed out in studies of terrorism—especially since the events of September 11, 2001—this new type of adversary may not be identified with a single ethnicity or geographic territory. Even though the origins of the violent religious terrorist may be found in the post-colonial period, the nature of the conflict has changed considerably since then.
What many fail to realize is that the ideology of the Nazi Party— particularly as refined by the SS—was essentially a spiritual ideology. I have made the point elsewhere that the Nazi Party was a cult. To try to understand it as a purely political entity (in a modern, American context) is to make a grave mistake.
The Nazi network that was formed in the last days of the war and which has existed, in one form or another in the seventy years since then, is comprised of both a nationalist and a religious agenda. The Nazi Party has its origins in esoteric Aryanism, such as represented by the writings of Guido von List and Lanz von Liebenfels, as well as occultist groups such as the Armanenschaft, the Germanenorden, and the Thule Gesellschaft. These groups combined racist ideology with spiritual, mystical ideas and practices, some of which were adapted from more mainstream esoteric groups such as the Theosophical Society and the writings of its founder, Helena Blavatsky. The Social Darwinism that is one of the hallmarks of the Nazi regime is the “outer court” of the spiritual Darwinism that is clearly elucidated in Blavatsky’s works. What this means is that Nazism is just as much a spiritual philosophy as it is a political one.
Thus the basic components of the non-state actor in asymmetric warfare are present in the Nazi Underground (what we have been calling ODESSA). The terrorist acts perpetrated by this Underground are precisely those of the modern non-state actors with which we have all become familiar. The motivation for ODESSA runs parallel to that of “Islamist” terror organizations: a spiritual viewpoint that both organizations wish to impose on the world through the medium of terrorism, assassinations, and the like. Both ideologies are exclusive rather than inclusive; both are anti-Semitic; both are anti-American and deplore what they see as Western “decadence.” (One could make a very good case that Hitler’s objection to modern art, modern music and modern culture in general is virtually identical to the point of view of Islamist critics concerning the same.)
In addition—and this may be more important than it seems at first glance—many members of the SS and the Wehrmacht converted to Islam after the war, and found employment and residence in Muslim countries. In some cases, they actively supported Arab regimes in their opposition to the State of Israel by providing technical expertise, engineers, and training in interrogation, espionage, and related arts of war.
I believe this provides an important perspective into the current terrorist phenomenon, as it shows a continuity of purpose combined with tactical and operational methods that have their origin in the murky world of the first days of the Cold War—when a cynical manipulation of religion using non-state actors took place under the aegis of a decades-long and often poorly thought-out campaign of state-sponsored anti-Communism.
During the course of many years of research (from about 1968– present) into the origins of religious violence I have come into personal contact with both the PLO and Jemaah Islamiyyah (JI), as well as with North American racialist and white supremacist groups such as the National Renaissance Party (NRP) and the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) among others, as well as with the South American Nazi sanctuary and nexus for Operation Condor, Colonia Dignidad in Chile. I lived in Malaysia for seven years, in an apartment that was only a few blocks from where the 9/11 attacks were originally discussed, and in Indonesia where I met Abu Bakr Ba’asyir, the architect of the Bali Bombings in 2002, and founder of JI.
I have also been on intimate terms with a number of conventional and non-conventional religious organizations spanning various forms of Judaism, Christianity and Islam as well as Buddhism, the religious of India, Afro-Caribbean religions, and modern so called “New Age” movements such as Wicca, Satanism, and the secret societies of Western Europe and America. I believe it is this unique perspective on both religion and politics that informs my thesis that the choices we made as a country in the immediate post-war period have resulted in the current state of affairs where terrorism, “Islamism,” and other forms of asymmetric conflict are concerned.
To quote Infield again:
It has become evident during recent years that major wars in the nuclear age will be fewer than those in the past but individual and group terrorism will increase steadily. Skorzeny and his commandos during the Third Reich and Skorzeny and his ODESSA members during the postwar years were leaders in modern day terroristic tactics. Skorzeny’s followers and students adhere to his teachings today.116
It was Skorzeny and his colleagues in ODESSA who, as early as 1950 and the outbreak of the Korean War, proposed forming a bloc of non-aligned nations in Asia, Africa, and Latin America to stand up to America and Russia: exactly the same position taken by Sukarno five years later. The position of the Islamist theoreticians of today is not dissimilar: the difference is that the Soviet Union has already fallen.
While China may develop into a threat, Uzbek and other activists in western China are creating another Muslim front with the intention of destabilizing that regime. Seen as both Communist and Capitalist, China could be an interesting adversary for the Third Way position of contemporary Nazism. China is at least as nationalist as its former enemy, Japan.
As for Japan itself, it has recovered remarkably since the devastation of the Second World War and two atomic bombs. Japan and Germany are economic powerhouses. Even though Japan has been struggling in recent years, it is still one of the most prosperous nations in the world.
As for Germany, it has developed exactly as planned so long ago. It is reunited and the leader of the European Union, easily its most powerful and influential member. It is true that growing numbers of immigrants from Eastern Europe and especially Muslim immigrants from Turkey, the Balkans, and North Africa, are providing an environment where questions concerning German identity and responsibility are being raised. But as German cities have been rebuilt, industrial growth is strong, and memories of the war are fading with each new generation, it is doubtful whether any serious soul-searching will occur. With tensions rising in Europe over the fate of Ukraine and the Russian annexation of Crimea, it may be that the world will look to Germany again to provide the buffer between a newly-aroused Russia and the much more vulnerable nations of Eastern and Southern Europe.
It is doubtful whether the world will once again be confronted with jack-booted storm troopers wearing swastika armbands, singing the Horst Wessel song; but that does not mean that Nazism has disappeared. It has merely changed uniforms and moved to a different theater of operations. I do not wish to deprive the Islamic groups of agency in their present conflict with the West, but it is important to emphasize that they were as manipulated and exploited by the
Germans in two World Wars as they had been by the colonial powers. The concept of global jihad was foreign to Islam until created by a German spy—of Jewish ancestry, no less—with a view towards using Muslims as proxy soldiers in Germany’s fight with the Allied forces of England, France, and Russia. And when the Cold War began, they were manipulated once again: this time by American intelligence efforts to weaponize Islam against the Soviet Union.
To continue the struggle against the Western world that was begun by Westerners themselves for motives that had nothing to do with Islam or with genuine jihad is to cooperate in Western strategies that only will result in the destruction of more Muslim lives and the desolation of more Arab lands.
This is especially true with regards to Palestine. The Palestinians themselves must realize that no assistance is coming their way from the vastly wealthier and populous Arab world. The devastation of Gaza and the ongoing occupation of the West Bank is the legacy of decades of Arab indecision and manipulation. It is obviously far more beneficial to have the Palestinians live in squalor and die in refugee camps than to have the Arab nations work together to create a more productive solution. The Arab leaders have long since realized that the Nazi and Zen ideals of heroic death on the battlefield are dated notions, suicidal and non-productive, that can only end in annihilation. Yet they tolerate and even encourage the raging anti-Semitism of Hitler, Goebbels, and von Leers because it directs Palestinian anger towards Israel (and the United States), and away from the Arab leaders themselves who have found themselves in an increasingly vulnerable situation since the revolts of the Arab Spring.
Palestinian suicide bombers, however, have looked towards Hitler and Hajj Amin al-Husseini as avatars of the New Islam, of the desire to create a caliphate that will stretch from Jerusalem and Mecca all the way to Southeast Asia. To Kuala Lumpur, and Jakarta.
And, yes, even to Sumbawa.
We are still fighting World War One, and we will continue to fight it. We are redrawing the world map once again in lines of blood and steel. America should be at the forefront of the fight to end these conflicts, but our moral leadership has been called into question again and again. We made mistakes at the end of World War Two: we sided with the colonial powers when we should have made common cause with the indigenous peoples of the Middle East, Africa, and Asia who looked to us as their natural allies. We enlisted the aid of Nazis and Nazi war criminals to accelerate our space program and to field espionage agents against the Soviet Union. We allowed dedicated and committed anti-Semites with a history of violence and bloodshed against civilian populations to run freely in the developing nations, training torturers and assassins.
We acted out of fear; we co-opted our values, trading them for greater security.
This, too, is the Hitler Legacy. We thought we could control the Devil that was the Nazi Party and the SS, using them to protect ourselves against Russia. We used the strategies developed by the Germans in two world wars to coerce and cajole Muslim believers to declare a holy war—a holy war that would one day be aimed at us.
We lived up to the charges made against us by the Islamists— that we were without faith, bereft of spirituality, obsessed with materialism, cold enough to the summons of the soul that we could contemplate weaponizing religion: seeing it as just one more tool, one more element in our ever growing arsenal of destruction. We could urge Muslims and Buddhists to risk their lives in attacks against our enemies, willing to fight to the last drop of their blood, using their faith—and clumsy, awkward protestations of our own— as the motivation for deadly, violent action when we had no moral, no legitimate right at all, to demand this of them.
Is it any wonder, then, that the blowback was so severe, the hatred so concentrated?
The networks still exist, transforming softly from time to time, changing with every new political development on the world stage. There are names in the address book of ODESSA chief Hans- Ulrich Rudel of people who are still alive as this is being written: people scattered all over the world, devotees, true believers, carrying the torch in a virtual Nuremberg Rally, feeling more and more comfortable by the day.
New groups are being formed, new leaders chosen from among the faithful. Xenophobia is at an all-time high in Europe and increasingly in America. The Internet has provided new and improved means of communication. Arab systems of money transfer such as hawala are used to defeat the strictures of the international banking system, made more severe after the events of 2001. The hysteria we used to feel about secret Communists has been replaced by hysteria over terrorism. We lost our way, briefly, in the 1950s over Communism; and innocent people were ruined, reputations destroyed. Now again we are equally paranoid to the extent that TSA agents pat down the elderly and infants in strollers. We are increasingly made to disrobe before we can board a plane, and we are thankful because this means we will be safer.
But, if we want to, we can walk across the border into Canada or Mexico.
As the political life of every country becomes more and more polarized between “right” and “left,” the men of ODESSA can only laugh at our discomfort. When the Berlin Wall came down many thought that the world had become a safer place. They did not realize that this was only phase one of the overall plan, the one that might have been hatched in Strasbourg in 1944 at the Maison Rouge Hotel. Or not. But it was the plan.
And when the Soviet Union fell, many patted themselves on the back thinking that history was at an end, that all serious conflict was over, except maybe for a little clean-up here and there. Nothing to worry about. Our side won.
On the sixth of June, 1948 Savitri Devi—the woman historian Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke called “Hitler’s Priestess”—met the venerable old Swedish explorer Sven Hedin. Distraught over the destruction of the Reich and the executions at Nuremberg, she asked him:
“And I’d like to know, can we have any hope?”
He said, “Why do you say, ‘Can we have any hope?’ Do you have no hope?”
She then replied, “Those of Nuremberg, they have killed them.”
Sven Hedin said, “Don’t fear. Germany has more such men.”
“Yes, but when will they appear?”
“They’ll appear in time.”
“What about the Fuhrer? Is he dead or alive?”
“Whether he’s dead or alive, he’s eternal.”117
115 Glenn B. Infield, Skorzeny: Hitler’s Commando, New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1981, p. 238.
116 Infield, p. 237.
117 Abridged from Savitri Devi, And Time Rolls On: The Savitri Devi Interviews, R.G. Fowler, editor. Counter-Currents Publishing, 2013, p. 54.
Reprinted with permission from Red Wheel/Weiser, LLC. and Nicolas-Hays/Ibis Press, The Hitler Legacy: The Nazi Cult in Diaspora: How it was Organized, How it was Funded, and Why it Remains a Threat to Global Security in the Age of Terrorism by Peter Levenda is available wherever books or ebooks are sold or directly from the publisher at 1-800-423-7087 or www.redwheelweiser.com.
Peter Levenda is a well-known author of several books including Unholy Alliance and Ratline. Levenda is also the author of the three volume study of the influence of esoterica on American politics, Sinister Forces: A Grimoire of American Political Witchcraft and the controversial Ibis Press title, The Angel and the Sorcerer: The Remarkable Story of the Occult Origins of Mormonism and the Rise of Mormons in American Politics.
ADDITIONAL RESEARCH FROM STTPML:
by Alf Mendes – Saturday 11th January 2003
1897: Long-established Union Pacific Railroad (UPR) bankrupted.
1898: Edward Henry Harriman & legal partner, Judge Robert Scott Lovett, buy UPR for $110 million, a deal brokered by New York-based Kuhn Loeb investment bank house, of which Felix Warburg was a partner. During this period, Samuel Prescott Bush was president of the Buckeye Steel Castings Co.
1914: With war looming, Percy A. Rockefeller took control of the arms manufacturer, Remington Arms & appoints Samuel F. Pryor as CEO.
1918: Robert Scott Lovett (above) now president of UPR. Samuel Prescott Bush (above) made director of the facilities division of the US War Industries Board under its chairman Bernard Baruch & his assistant, the banker Clarence Dillon.
Nov.1919: Founding members of W.A.Harriman & Co. bank: George Herbert Walker Snr (Pres./CEO); Averell Harriman (Chm); E.Rowland (‘Bunny”) Harriman (both sons of E.H.Harriman (above); & Percy Rockefeller (above). Averell Harriman was to become US Ambassador to the USSR [‘43 – ‘46]; US Secretary of Commerce [‘46 – ‘48]; & Governor of NY State [‘55 – ‘59])
1920: Averell Harriman & George Herbert Walker Snr. of W.A.Harriman & Co. gain control of the German Hamburg-Amerika Line after negotiations with the latter’s chief executive, William Cuno, & Max Warburg of the shipping line’s bankers, M.M. Warburg. The American holding now known as the American Ship & Commerce Corp. (ASCC). Samuel F. Pryor (above) of Remington Arms had been involved in the deal & now served on the board of ASCC. (Cuno was subsequently to become a heavy contributor to Nazi Party funds). It should be noted that Averell Harriman was chairman of UPR from 1920 -1946.
1922: Averell Harriman set up a branch of W. A. Harriman & Co. in Berlin under the presidency of his partner, George H. Walker Snr.
Oct. 1923: Fritz Thyssen’s contributions to the Nazi Party began with a donation of 100,000 marks (ref: his book “I Paid Hitler” ‘41).
Prior to 1924: As revealed in a US government memorandum dated Oct. 5 ‘42 to the Executive Committee of the office of the Alien Property Custodian: “W. Averell Harriman was in Europe sometime prior to 1924 & at that time became acquainted with Fritz Thyssen, the German industrialist”, and they agreed to set up a bank for Thyssen in New York. It adds that the Thyssen agent “H. J. Kouwenhoven..came to the United States..prior to 1924 for conferences with the Harriman company in this connection”.
1924: W.A.Harriman & Co invested $400,000 in setting up Union Banking Corp. (UBC) in New York to act in partnership with the Thyssen-owned Bank voor Handel en Scheepvart (BHS) in Holland. The UBC was now in a position to transfer funds back & forth between the US and Thyssen’s companies in Germany – his Vereinigte Stahlwerke in particular.Prescott Sheldon Bush Snr. (son of Samuel Bush, & son-in-law of George H Walker Snr) joins the Harriman – controlled US Rubber Co.
1926: Prescott S. Bush Snr. made Vice-President of W. A. Harriman & Co.The Wall Street banker, Clarence Dillon (an old colleague of Prescott S. Bush Snr.’s father, Sam Bush – see above), of Dillon Read, set up the German Steel Trust with Thyssen & partner, Friedrich Flick, whereby Dillon Read would handle the Trust’s corporate banking in return for two Dillon Read representatives being on the board of the German Steel Trust, whose chief executive was Albert Voegler, another German industrialist who was to help Hitler into power. He (Voegler) also held directorships in the BHS bank, & the Hamburg-Amerika Line. The UBC was by now in partnership with Friedrich Flick’s vast steel, coal & zinc conglomerate operating in Germany & Poland – the Silesian Holding Co. Walker, Bush, & Harriman now owned one third of Flick’s conglomerate, calling their holding the Consolidated Silesian Steel Corp.
1928/1929: W.A.Harriman & Co. buy Dresser Industries (founded 1905 by Solomon R.Dresser), & Henry Neil Mallon is made Pres./Chm of Dresser. (Mallon had attended Yale University with E.Rowland (‘Bunny’) Harriman& Prescott Bush Snr.)
1930: Prescott Bush snr. Director of Dresser Industries (until ‘52)
1930/’31(?); As admitted by Fritz Thyssen during interrogation in Sept. ‘45, he arranged with Rudolph Hess for the transfer of “about 250-300,000 marks” via his (Thyssen’s) Dutch bank BHS to the Nazi Party – adding it was “about the sum I’d given before”. In total, he had donated & loaned more than one million dollars to the Nazi Party.
Jan. 1 1931: W. A. Harriman & Co. merged with the British-American investment house, Brown Brothers, resulting in Prescott S. Bush Snr., Thatcher M. Brown& the two Harriman brothers being the senior partners of the new Brown Brothers Harriman firm. A board member of Brown Bros., Robert A. Lovett (son of Robert Scott Lovett [above] & Asst. Sec. for Air [in WW2]; Under Sec. of State [‘47 – ‘49]; Dep. Sec. of Defense [‘50 – ‘51]; Secretary of Defense [‘51 – ‘53]), an American whose father had served on the War Industries Board of WW 1 with Sam Bush [above]), became another partner in the newly- merged firm. Prescott S. Bush Snr. now ran the New York office of the the newly-merged firm, while Thatcher Brown ran the London end. Certain pertinent facts about Brown Bros. are worthy of note here: Montagu Collet Norman, governor of the Bank of England & well-known Nazi sympathiser, was not only an ex-Brown Bros. partner – his grandfather had also been boss of Brown Bros. during the American Civil War when they (Brown Bros.) were shipping 75% of slave cotton from the southern states of America to British mills.
1932: As reported by the US embassy in Berlin to Washington not long before Hitler’s taking over of power, questions were being raised as to who were the financial backers behind the Nazi Party electioneering & their 300,000 – 400,000 SA & SS troops – adding that the American-owned Hamburg-Amerika Line was funding propaganda against the German government’s attempts to disband these troops!
Jan. 1933: Hitler assumes power in Germany.
Mar. 7 1933: Prescott S. Bush Snr. notified Max Warburg (above) that he (Warburg) was to be the American Ship & Commerce Line official representative on the board of the Hamburg- Amerika Line. Warburg had been a long-time advisor to Hjalmar Schacht (German Economics Minister & a close friend of Montagu Norman), & was an executive in the Reichsbank. A further pertinent connection: Max Warburg’s brothers ran the Kuhn Loeb investment bank, which had handled E. H. Harriman’s buy-out of the Union Pacific Railroad in the 1890’s (above).
Mar. 29 1933: As revealed in Moshe Gottlieb’s book “American Anti-Nazi Resistance ‘33 – ‘41”, Max Warburg’s son, Erich, cabled his cousin, Frederick Warburg – who was a director of the Union Pacific Railroad – instructing him to use his influence to stop all anti-Nazi propaganda & activity in America.
Mar. 31 1933: As a result: the American-Jewish committee (within which the Warburgs had much influence) & The B’nai B’rith (which subsequently became known as the Anti-Defamation League) issued a joint statement counselling “that no American boycott against Germany be encouraged”!
May. 20. 1933: As reported in the New York Times: on Hitler achieving power, an agreement to coordinate all trade between Germany & America was reached in Berlin after negotiations between Hitler’s Economics Minister, Hjalmar Schacht (above) & John Foster Dulles. As a result of this, the Harriman International Co. – under Oliver Harriman (Averell’s first cousin) – formed a syndicate of 150 firms/individuals to conduct all exports from Germany to America. It should be noted here that the two Dulles brothers, partners in the corporate law firm Sullivan & Cromwell, had acted for many Nazi enterprises during & after this period, including I. G. Farben, developer of the nerve gas, Tabun; SKF, supplier of 60% of its bearings to Germany;& the Schroeder Banking house, of which Allen Welsh Dulles became a director of its New York branch – a post he held until 1944. Further pertinent details of the Dulles brothers: J. F. Dulles became Secretary of State [‘53 – ‘59]; A. W. Dulles became CIA Deputy Director for Plans [‘51]; Deputy Director of Central Intelligence [‘51 – ‘53]; & Director of CIA [‘53 -’61].
Sept. 5 1933: North German Lloyd Co. merged with Hamburg-Amerika Line in Hamburg.
Nov. 4 1933: American Ship & Commerce Corp. (owners of Hamburg-Amerika – see above) installed long-time Harriman executive, Christian Beck as manager of ‘freight & operations’ in North America for this newly-merged company, now known as Hapag-LLoyd, whose chairman was Emil Helfferich, a Nazi. Nazi security guards accompanied all shipping so engaged in this trade.
Sept. 1934: At the US Senate Nye Committee hearings, it was revealed that Samuel Pryor, executive ctte. chairman of Remington arms & founding director of both the UBC & the American Ship & Commerce Corp., had joined in a cartel agreement with I. G. Farben, the German chemical/armaments conglomerate (see above). It was further revealed that the Nazi troops (noted above) were “nearly all armed with American guns”.
Dec. 7 1941: Japanese bomb Pearl Harbour – US now in World War 2.
Aug. 28 1942: Under the Trading with the Enemy Act, the US government – via Leo T. Crowley, the US Alien Property Custodian – ordered the seizure of all property of Hapag-Lloyd.
Oct. 20 1942: Leo T. Crowley, the US Alien Property Custodian – seized the stock shares of the Union Banking Corp. of New York, whose shareholders were: Chm./Dir. E. Rowland (‘Bunny’) Harriman (of Brown Brothers Harriman); Pres./Dir. Cornelis Lievense (banking functionary for the Nazis); Treasurer/Dir. Harold D. Pennington (of Brown Brothers Harriman); Dir. Ray Morris (of Brown Brothers Harriman); Dir. Prescott S. Bush Snr.(of Brown Brothers Harriman); Dir. H.J. Kouwenhoven (Dir./Chief foreign financial exec. of German Steel Trust & the man who had brokered the deal between Fritz Thyssen & the UBC); Dir. Johann G. Groeninger (Industrial Exec. in Nazi Germany). These seized shares were described in the Vesting Order as “shares held for the benefit of members of the Thyssen family, property of nationals..of a designated enemy country”.
Oct. 28 1942: US government seized 2 Nazi front companies – the Seamless Steel Equipment Corp & Holland-American Trading Corp. – both run by the UBC.
Nov. 17 1942: Nazi financial interests (only) in Silesian-American Corp. (above) seized, leaving US partners (UBC) “to carry on the business”.
Jul. 2 1945: As revealed by the US Treasury Dept. in hearings before a 79th Congress committee: the Vereinigte Stahlwerke (see above) had produced the following proportions of Nazi Germany’s total output: Pig iron 50.8%; Pipe & tubes 45.5%; Universal plate 41.4%; Galvanised sheet 38.5%; Heavy plate 36%; Explosives 35%; Wire 22.1%.
1948: George Herbert Walker Bush Snr. (son of Prescott S. Bush Snr., grandson of Samuel Bush & George Walker – see above) joins Dresser/IDECO, & two years later co-founds the Bush-Overby Development Co. (trading in oil leases & royalties) with a total capital of $300,000. James Gammell, a Scottish ‘eminence grise’ – whose father had served as Head of the British Military Mission in Moscow in ‘45, working closely with US Ambassador Averell Harriman (see above), invested $50,000 in Bush-Overby. (He was later to become director of Zapata). Other investors included: Eugene Meyer (World Bank) $50,000; & Prescott Bush Snr. $50,000 – all with not-a-little-help from George Herbert Walker (whose son, George Herbert Walker Jnr. holds directorships in both Bush-Overby & later – Zapata.) The job of this company entailed – in effect – conning the Texan farmer/land-owner into signing away his rights to any future oil-royalties for a token fee.
1952: Prescott Bush Snr. elected State Senator
1953: George Bush Snr. Joins Attorneys-at-Law brothers J.Hugh Liedtke & William Liedtke in setting up Zapata Petroleum with capital of $500,000 from Liedtke associates, & $500,000 from Walker associates – & Jimmy Gammell is given a directorship.
1954: George Bush Snr. now president of Zapata Offshore (oil drilling company 40% owned by Zapata Petroleum).
1966: George Bush Snr. elected to Congress.
1971 – 1972: George Bush Snr. made US ambassador to UN.
1972: George Bush Snr. made chairman of the Republican Party National committee.
1974 – 1975: In aftermath of President Nixon’s resignation, President Gerald Ford appointed George Bush Snr. to head the US Liaison Office in Beijing
Jan. 30 1976 – Mar. 9 1977: George Bush Snr. made Director of CIA. During this period a number of the CIA’s ‘clandestine aircraft were sold to Skyway Airline, owned by James Bath who had served in the military reserve with George W. Bush Jnr.(son of George Bush Snr.). Bath was the US representative of Salem bin Laden, a brother of Osama bin Laden. George Bush Jnr. formed the oil company Arbusto Energy. George Bush Snr. flies to London at the height of the ‘MI5 Wilson Plot’ to assure British Prime Minister Harold Wilson that if he had been under surveillance it was not the CIA which had been responsible. This was reported in the Sunday Times on 29th March 1981 under the headline ‘The Hollis affair’ and in ‘The profession of intelligence’, part 5, BBC Radio 4, 10th February 1982.
1978: James Bath invests $50,000 in Arbusto Energy
1979: During Jimmy Carter’s presidency, & as a result of the Sandanista rebellion led by Daniel Ortega, the Nicaraguan dictator Anastasio Somoza fled the country.
Jan. 20 1981: Ronald Reagan now president with George Bush Snr. hisVice-President. Defeat of the left-wing Sandanistas became an immediate aim of the Reagan Administration, & this was to be implemented using secretive methods (which were later to prove illegal) under the control of the Special Situations Group, whose chairman was Vice-President George Bush Snr. (who had wrested this post from Secretary of State Alexander Haig early on). Enter Lieutenant-Colonel Oliver North who served on both the Inter-Departmental Group on Terrorism & the Terrorist Incident Working Group – both under Bush. They were to set-up, finance & arm an anti-Sandanista militia, the Contras, using neighbouring Guatemala as a training ground.
1983: Contras begin offensive against Sandanistas in Nicaragua.
Apr. 1984: US congress refuses to authorise $24 million aid to Contras requested by Reagan.
1984: Arbusto Energy Inc. proves to be an unsuccessful venture & is bought out by another oil company, Spectrum 7 Energy Corp. George W. Bush Jnr. is made president of Spectrum.
Oct. 1984: Congress cuts off any funding & support to the Contras. John Ellis (‘Jeb’) Bush, the 2nd eldest son of George Bush Snr. – & a real estate developer – had been acting as the Reagan administration’s unofficial link with Contra & Nicaraguan exiles in Miami. He also put the right-wing Guatemalan politician, Dr. Mario Castejon, in touch with Oliver North, which led to Castejon & Henry Whaley ( a former arms dealer) proposing that the State Department supply medicines, field hospitals & light aircraft to the Contras. This proposal was passed to the CIA via TGS International, a firm owned by Ted Shackley, who had served as Associate Deputy Director of Operations in the CIA under George Bush Snr. (‘76 – ‘77).
Dec. 1985: Congress partially lifts ban on Contra aid, & authorises $13 million in aid – plus $27 million for ‘humanitarian’ aid.
1986: Behind-the-scenes machinations of the US Administration becomes public knowledge with the revelation of the illegal ‘Arms for Hostages’ scandal – known as the ‘Iran-Contra affair’. The Spectre 7 Energy Corp. (above) proves to be another unsuccessful venture for George W. Bush Jnr. It is sold to another small oil company, Harken Energy Corp., a deal whereby the partners in Spectrum received $2 million worth of shares in Harken,& George Bush Jnr. was made director & consultant of the Harken – with the added bonus of $600,000 extra shares.
Oct. 1986: US Congress lifts remaining ban & authorises £100 million aid to Contras.
1987: In a CBS interview with Jane Wallace, Michael ‘Mickey’ Tolliver, a pilot involved in the trade of drugs, revealed details of one flight he had made involving the Contras: he had flown to Honduras with a cargo of 28.000 lbs of guns & ammunition, & after a 3-day rest there he had returned with a cargo of 25,360 lbs of marijuana – landing at the US Airforce Base in Homestead, Florida, where the cargo was unloaded! He had been paid $75.000. Saudi banker Salem Massaoud invests $25 million in Harken.Mar. 11 ‘88: Robert McFarlane (Reagan’s National Security Advisor ‘83 – ‘85) found guilty of criminal charges of witholding information from Congress about secret aid to the Contras.
Mar. 16 1988: John Poindexter (National Security Advisor from ‘85 – ‘86) & Oliver North (National Security Council – see above) both charged with conspiracy to defraud the US Government – but trials delayed.
Late ‘88: US Federal Regulators shut down Silverado Banking Savings& Loan co., due, primarily, to non-repayment of questionable loans they had made. Neil Mellon Bush (3rd son of George Bush Snr.) had been director of Silverado from ‘85.
Jan. 20 1989: George Bush Snr. inaugurated as president of US.
May 1989: Oliver North convicted on 3 counts, & in July ‘89 is fined $150,000 – plus a 3-year suspended jail sentence.
June 1989: President George Bush Snr. imposed economic sanctions on China as a result of Tiananmen Square killings. Soon after these sanctions were imposed, the President’s older brother, Prescott Bush Jnr. of the consultancy firm Prescott Bush Resources, was hired by Asset Management International Financing & Settlement at a fee of $250,000 for consultation re-its (Asset’s) joint venture with China to set up the latter’s internal communications network. (This involved $300 million worth of Hughes Aircraft satellites – a key component of the deal). Concurrent with this, Prescott Bush Jnr. was also acting as middleman for the buying-out of Asset Management by West Tsusho, a Tokyo-based investment firm controlled by the Inagawakai branch of the Yakuza, the well-known politically influential Japanese Mob. For this he received a $250,000 ‘finder’s fee’ & promised an annual retainer of $250,000 for the next 3 years – as consultant.
Nov. 1989: US Congress passed additional sanctions specifically barring the export of US satellites to China – unless the president found the sale “in the national interest”.
Dec. 19 1989: President George Bush Snr. lifted the sanctions, citing “the national interest”.
1990: Orlando Bosch, an anti-Castro Cuban, leader of the Coordination of United Revolutionary Organisations, who had masterminded many bombings in Cuba & a Cuban airliner over Barbados on October 5th ‘76, had finally been imprisoned in 1988 in Miami for firing a bazooka at a Polish freighter in Miami harbour. He is now paroled after John Ellis Bush has lobbied his father’s administration for his release from prison.
Jan. 1990: Somewhat surprisingly for a small company, Harken Energy Corp. clinches a deal with the Gulf State of Bahrain, whereby the latter gives Harken exclusive right for oil & gas exploration. The report of the Office of Thrift Supervision into the failure of Silverado Banking revealed that Neil Mellon Bush (see above) had failed to disclose to Silverado Banking (on whose board he sat) his business connections with Ken Good & Bill Walters who had defaulted on $132 million in loans from Silverado. (1) Good had given Neil Mallon Bush a $100,000 loan to invest in the commodities market. (2) Neil Bush had Silverado write a letter of recommendation to Argentina, where Good International – in partnership with Neil Bush’s oil company JNB Exploration (which he had founded in ‘83) – was exploring for gas& oil. (3) Bill Walters had contributed $150,000 to the initial capitalisation of JNB, and – through his bank Cherry Creek National Bank -had extended a $1.5 million line of credit to JNB (from which he, Bush, had drawn a salary of $500,000 over the next 5 years).
Apr. 7 1990: John Poindexter convicted on 5 counts, & sentenced to 6 months imprisonment – but convictions of both North & Poindexter subsequently ‘set aside’.
June 22 ‘90: George W. Bush Jnr. sold $848,560 of his Harken shares – & one week later the company announces a $23 million loss for the past quarter, & loses a further 60% of its value over the following 6 months. As the ‘News & World Report’ noted at the time: Bush Jnr. had recently been appointed by Harken to study the possible economic restructuring of the company!
‘1990 to 1994: George W. Bush Jnr. made Director of Carlyle Group subsidiary: Caterair.
Aug. 2 1990: Iraq invades Kuwait.
Mar. 1991: Asset Management (see above) goes bankrupt, & the following year West Tsusho filed a $2.5 million suit against Prescott Bush Jnr. for not protecting their $5 million investment in Asset Management.
Apr.19 1991: US Government declared Neil Mallon Bush a bankrupt & imposed sanctions on him for violating ‘conflict of interest’ rules.
1992: Caspar W. Weinberger (Secretary of Defense ‘81 – ‘87) indicted on 5 counts of lying to Congress.
Dec. 24 1992: President George Bush Snr., having just been defeated by Clinton, pardons all those principal players (above) in the Iran-Contra scandal.
1998: George W. Bush Jnr. governor of Texas (for the second time); John Ellis (‘Jeb’) Bush governor of Florida.
Jan. 20 ‘2001: George W. Bush Jnr. inaugurated as president of the USA (with not a little help from his brother ‘Jeb’).
2001: Revealed by the ‘Wall Street Journal’ that George Bush Snr. had brokered a deal with the Saudi Bin Laden family, whereby the latter would invest heavily in the prestigious Carlyle Group (see above). As noted in the ‘Petroleum Supply Annual 2001, Vol. 1 Table 21: Iraq supplied 289,998,000 barrels of crude oil to The USA in the year 2001.